Connection idea try a good biopsychosocial model writing about somebody’s trait means of appropriate within the close matchmaking, eg with parents, students, and you may close couples. These ways of associated is actually discovered throughout the very early infancy and you can mildew next sexual matchmaking. A grownup who is securely affixed possess internalized an established dating to help you his/their caregivers in infancy, which means is capable of adjusting to various social contexts and you can, more to the point, out-of maintaining an adequate balance anywhere between care about-regulation and you can social controls off fret. Insecure adult attachment appearances are divided into step 1) anxious/preoccupied (folks are hypersensitive in order to rejection and show fanatical care- and you can attract-looking to conclusion); 2) avoidant/dismissing (men and women are hyposensitive in order to kody promocyjne pure personal relationships, and so are socially remote); and you can 3) unresolved/sloppy (people are not able to deal significantly less than worry, for this reason suffering pervading affective dysregulation). Which comment covers the fresh theoretic, emotional, neuroscientific, and you will developmental aspects of attachment out of a verification-founded direction. It includes a current account of science out-of connection and you will the significance to the etiology, medical diagnosis, and you will treatment of mental illness. It examines the brand new privileged loved ones anywhere between connection and identification disorders (PDs) from numerous angles to expose the most up-to-date psychotherapeutic enhances, centered on attachment look, for the treatment of PDs, particularly borderline PD. Three active, evidence-oriented psychotherapeutic treatments are explained: Mentalization-Situated Cures, Transference-Centered Psychotherapy and Schema-Concentrated Procedures.
Accessory and its Significance in order to Identity Conditions
Connection idea, formulated because of the John Bowlby (1), relates to another person’s characteristic method of connected within the sexual relationships so you’re able to “connection figures,” tend to your parents, people, and you will intimate lovers (2, 3). Out-of delivery, the latest connections away from a child together with/their primary caregivers will establish a base getting identity invention and you may will shape subsequent intimate relationship, hopes of social acceptance, and you can attitudes so you’re able to getting rejected. A safe ft is formed if accessory shape (often the mom) brings balance and you can defense for the times out-of be concerned, that allows the baby to understand more about their/this lady surroundings. Therefore, the little one creates a collection of intellectual types of your/by herself while some inside societal relationships (“interior performing designs”), predicated on repeated affairs having significant other people (4). These types of very early accessory connections are crucial towards acquisition of capacities to have connect with and you can worry regulation, attentional manage, mentalization, and for the infant’s feeling of worry about-agency (5).
The newest accessory literary works has been dominated from the operationalized examination out-of attribute designs away from relevant. Most influential have been findings away from individual differences in infants’ connection safeguards analyzed from the Unusual Problem procedure (6). Whenever temporarily separated from their caregivers and you will kept having a complete stranger when you look at the an unfamiliar setting, children reveal specific behavioural habits. About three collection of accessory patterns was understood on the application of this process: safer (63% of kids examined), anxious/unwilling or ambivalent (16%), and you will avoidant (21%). Into the adults, accessory looks are correspondingly categorized while the safer/independent (58% of your own nonclinical society), avoidant/dismissing (23%), and you will stressed/obsessed (19%) (7, 8); this type of classifications come from the new Adult Accessory Interview (AAI) (nine, 10), hence elicits accessory narratives in the subject’s youngsters. Further functions has shown a fourth pattern out-of sloppy accessory, which might be called unsolved/messy to own adults and baffled/sloppy to possess infants (2). Adults showing so it trend are also categorized in one of your around three number one groups (5).
Accessory and Identification Issues: A preliminary Opinion
Inside Unusual Situation, a firmly affixed baby readily examines his/the girl the fresh new land however caregiver’s presence, shows anxiety regarding stranger’s visibility, is disappointed because of the caregiver’s short term lack, quickly tries experience of new caregiver up on reunion, that will be reassured by renewed get in touch with, rapidly resuming exploration. Concurrently, an adult categorized since the safe/autonomous inside AAI coherently brings together attachment memory into the an important story and you can shows adore for connection matchmaking.
A keen avoidant kid is shorter stressed at the separation, might not find experience of new caregiver to your his/their come back, and may also perhaps not choose the caregiver toward complete stranger. Within the people, avoidant/dismissing AAI narratives often lack coherence; people will not be able so you’re able to remember certain thoughts in support of general arguments and will idealize or devalue its early matchmaking (5). Such routines appear as the result of a “hyper-deactivation” of your own connection system. It hyper-deactivation try characterized by the new suppression of proximity-trying to behavior and also the commitment to manage be concerned alone. Meaning a definite try to restrict negative thoughts through a beneficial noninterpersonal way of controlling him or her (11).